Python Pandas Interview Questions for Data Science

Python Pandas Interview Questions for Data Science


An overview of the basics of data manipulation with Pandas and the types of Python Pandas interview questions asked in Data Science Interviews.

Pandas is the most common library for manipulating tabular data. Think of it like a spreadsheet or SQL table within Python. One can manipulate structured data just as one will be using Excel or Google Sheets. A lot of machine learning and allied libraries like SciPy, Scikit-learn, Statsmodels, NetworkX etc. and visualization libraries like Matplotlib, Seaborn, Plotly et al work very well with Pandas Data Structures. A lot of specialized libraries like geo-pandas, quandl, Bokeh, et al have been built on top of the Pandas Library. Many proprietary libraries used for algorithmic trading, data analysis, ETL processes, etc use Pandas extensively. You can find out more about the Pandas ecosystem here.

The Pandas library has been developed since 2010, hence there is a well documented code available. You can go through the documentation here. This versatility, flexibility and convenience makes Pandas the go to solution for working with Machine Learning Data. If you are serious about appearing for Python Data Science Interviews, proficiency in Pandas is the bare minimum expectation.

Technical Concepts tested in Python Pandas Interview Questions

The problems involving Pandas can be broadly grouped into the following categories.

  • Sorting DataFrames
  • Handling Duplicates
  • Aggregations
  • Merging DataFrames
  • Calculated Fields
  • Datetime Operations
  • Text Manipulation
  • Offsets
  • Applying functions

In this article we will start with the basics and cover the first five areas. The remaining areas are covered in the second part of the series. Check out the second part here Python Pandas Questions for Data Science (Part 2).

Pandas Basics

Before we start working on different functionalities available in the Pandas library, we need to understand how Pandas organizes its data. This will help us understand the operations performed in detail. Please note that our aim for this article is understanding the workings of Pandas not code-optimization, hence we have chosen relatively easier data sets. We will be handling complex datasets and trickier problems in the next article in this series.

We use a simple dataset tracking Covid-19 data in India. We start off by looking at how the data looks like

dataset tracking Covid-19 data for pandas interview questions

Pandas organizes the data in form of a two-dimensional data structure called DataFrame

This is very similar to a Spreadsheet or a SQL table. Here is a rough analogy of the various terms.

rough analogy of the various terms

We can find the basic information about the DataFrame using the info method.

covid_df.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 344126 entries, 0 to 344125
Data columns (total 8 columns):
 #   Column     Non-Null Count   Dtype         
---  ------     --------------   -----         
 0   Date       344126 non-null  datetime64[ns]
 1   State      344126 non-null  object        
 2   District   344126 non-null  object        
 3   Confirmed  344126 non-null  int64         
 4   Recovered  344126 non-null  int64         
 5   Deceased   344126 non-null  int64         
 6   Other      344126 non-null  int64         
 7   Tested     258862 non-null  float64       
dtypes: datetime64[ns](1), float64(1), int64(4), object(2)
memory usage: 21.0+ MB

Each of the column names is the identifier for a column. Similar to what one will get in an SQL table. Just as with an SQL table, we can change the column names using the rename() method.

Where DataFrames differ from a SQL table or an Excel Sheet is in flexibility of the row identifiers – The index. At present, the index contains sequential values just as with SQL Tables or a Spreadsheet. However, we can create our own row values and they need not be unique or sequential. For example, we can set the State Column to be the index using the set_index() method.

state_idx = covid_df.set_index('State')
state_idx
State Column Python Pandas Interview Questions

The state field is no longer considered a column. When we call the info() method on the new DataFrame, we can see that the state column from our older dataset is now set as the index.

<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
Index: 344126 entries, Andaman and Nicobar Islands to West Bengal
Data columns (total 7 columns):
 #   Column     Non-Null Count   Dtype         
---  ------     --------------   -----         
 0   Date       344126 non-null  datetime64[ns]
 1   District   344126 non-null  object        
 2   Confirmed  344126 non-null  int64         
 3   Recovered  344126 non-null  int64         
 4   Deceased   344126 non-null  int64         
 5   Other      344126 non-null  int64         
 6   Tested     258862 non-null  float64       
dtypes: datetime64[ns](1), float64(1), int64(4), object(1)
memory usage: 21.0+ MB

We can get back a sequential Index by calling the reset_index() method.

Each column of data in a Pandas DataFrame is referred to as a Pandas Series. Every time we access a Pandas Series, we also get the index along. Example, if we take the District Series, we will get a column with State field as the index.

state_idx['District']
State
Andaman and Nicobar Islands              Unknown
Andhra Pradesh                         Anantapur
Andhra Pradesh                          Chittoor
Andhra Pradesh                     East Godavari
Andhra Pradesh                            Guntur
                                     ...        
West Bengal                      Purba Bardhaman
West Bengal                      Purba Medinipur
West Bengal                              Purulia
West Bengal                    South 24 Parganas
West Bengal                       Uttar Dinajpur
Name: District, Length: 344126, dtype: object

This can help us in subsetting the data in a lot of ways that are not available with Spreadsheets or SQL Tables.

Some very useful DataFrame functions that can be used to explore the data quickly are

.head() : This method shows n observations from the start of the DataFrame. If no argument is passed, then by default it returns the first 5 rows.

covid_df.head(20)
Python Pandas interview question for observations from the start

tail() : similar to the head() method, but this will give the last n rows of the DataFrame. If no argument is passed, then by default it returns the last five rows.

value_counts() : this gives us the frequency distribution of the values.

covid_df['State'].value_counts()
Uttar Pradesh                               39738
Madhya Pradesh                              27409
Tamil Nadu                                  21173
Bihar                                       20115
Rajasthan                                   19594
Maharashtra                                 19115
Gujarat                                     18044
Karnataka                                   16290
Odisha                                      16083
Chhattisgarh                                14918
Arunachal Pradesh                           12944
West Bengal                                 12581
Jharkhand                                   12497
Haryana                                     11872
Punjab                                      11695
Jammu and Kashmir                           10596
Andhra Pradesh                               7950
Kerala                                       7449
Uttarakhand                                  6790
Himachal Pradesh                             6225
Nagaland                                     5717
Mizoram                                      5377
Meghalaya                                    5359
Tripura                                      4160
Puducherry                                   2063
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu     1495
Assam                                        1421
Ladakh                                       1064
Manipur                                       962
Andaman and Nicobar Islands                   532
Telangana                                     532
Goa                                           532
Delhi                                         532
Chandigarh                                    532
Sikkim                                        505
Lakshadweep                                   265
Name: State, dtype: int64

Note: it will ignore missing values in the frequency count. So, if you want to include missing values, set the dropna argument to False. In this case, there were no missing values so we omitted this argument.

Sorting

As with SQL and Spreadsheets, we can sort the table based on a column or a sequence of columns. By default the values are sorted in ascending order, we can change the order by changing the ascending parameter. Example we can sort our Covid Dataset by the descending order of the State Names but Ascending order of the District Names.

covid_df.sort_values(by = ['State', 'District'], ascending = [False, True])
descending order of the State Names

Duplicates

Dealing with duplicates is a very common problem encountered in Data Science Interview questions. The presence of duplicates need not mean incorrect data. For example, a customer might purchase multiple items, hence the transaction data might contain repeated values of the same card number or customer id. Pandas provides a convenient way of dropping duplicates and creating a unique set of records. Once can apply the drop_duplicates() method for this purpose.

Suppose we want to find the list of distinct states from our Covid Dataset. We can do it using passing the entire series to a Python set and then converting it back into a Pandas Series. Conversely, we can apply the drop_duplicates() method. We can either apply it to the Pandas Series,

covid_df['State'].drop_duplicates()

or on the entire dataset and specify a subset to remove duplicates from.

covid_df.drop_duplicates(subset = ['State'])['State']
0                      Andaman and Nicobar Islands
1                                   Andhra Pradesh
13                               Arunachal Pradesh
14                                           Assam
15                                           Bihar
37                                      Chandigarh
38                                    Chhattisgarh
43                                           Delhi
44                                             Goa
45                                         Gujarat
75                                Himachal Pradesh
81                                         Haryana
101                                      Jharkhand
111                              Jammu and Kashmir
128                                      Karnataka
149                                         Kerala
163                                         Ladakh
165                                    Maharashtra
198                                      Meghalaya
199                                        Manipur
200                                 Madhya Pradesh
227                                        Mizoram
228                                         Odisha
238                                         Punjab
257                                     Puducherry
259                                      Rajasthan
290                                      Telangana
291                                     Tamil Nadu
328                                        Tripura
330                                  Uttar Pradesh
388                                    Uttarakhand
394                                    West Bengal
3979      Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu
11267                                     Nagaland
13703                                       Sikkim
170212                                 Lakshadweep
Name: State, dtype: object

Let us try to apply this in one of the Python Pandas interview questions. This one came up in an AirBnB Data Science Interview.

Python Pandas Interview Questions

Python Pandas Interview Questions

Find all neighborhoods present in this dataset

Python Pandas Interview Questions to Find all neighborhoods

Link to the question: https://platform.stratascratch.com/coding/9626-find-all-neighborhoods-present-in-this-dataset

The problem uses the airbnb_search_details dataset that has the following fields.

idint64
pricefloat64
property_typeobject
room_typeobject
amenitiesobject
accommodatesint64
bathroomsint64
bed_typeobject
cancellation_policyobject
cleaning_feebool
cityobject
host_identity_verifiedobject
host_response_rateobject
host_sincedatetime64[ns]
neighbourhoodobject
number_of_reviewsint64
review_scores_ratingfloat64
zipcodeint64
bedroomsint64
bedsint64

The dataset looks something like this.

Table: airbnb_search_details
idpriceproperty_typeroom_typeamenitiesaccommodatesbathroomsbed_typecancellation_policycleaning_feecityhost_identity_verifiedhost_response_ratehost_sinceneighbourhoodnumber_of_reviewsreview_scores_ratingzipcodebedroomsbeds
12513361555.68ApartmentEntire home/apt{TV,"Wireless Internet","Air conditioning","Smoke detector","Carbon monoxide detector",Essentials,"Lock on bedroom door",Hangers,Iron}21Real BedflexibleFALSENYCt89%2015-11-18East Harlem3871002901
7196412366.36CabinPrivate room{"Wireless Internet",Kitchen,Washer,Dryer,"Smoke detector","First aid kit","Fire extinguisher",Essentials,"Hair dryer","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_49","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_50"}23Real BedmoderateFALSELAf100%2016-09-10Valley Glen14919160611
16333776482.83HousePrivate room{TV,"Cable TV",Internet,"Wireless Internet",Kitchen,"Free parking on premises","Pets live on this property",Dog(s),"Indoor fireplace","Buzzer/wireless intercom",Heating,Washer,Dryer,"Smoke detector","Carbon monoxide detector","First aid kit","Safety card","Fire extinguisher",Essentials,Shampoo,"24-hour check-in",Hangers,"Hair dryer",Iron,"Laptop friendly workspace","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_49","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_50","Self Check-In",Lockbox}21Real BedstrictTRUESFt100%2013-12-26Richmond District117969411811
1786412448.86ApartmentPrivate room{"Wireless Internet","Air conditioning",Kitchen,Heating,"Suitable for events","Smoke detector","Carbon monoxide detector","First aid kit","Fire extinguisher",Essentials,Shampoo,"Lock on bedroom door",Hangers,"translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_49","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_50"}21Real BedstrictTRUENYCt93%2010-05-11Williamsburg8861121111
14575777506.89VillaPrivate room{TV,Internet,"Wireless Internet","Air conditioning",Kitchen,"Free parking on premises",Essentials,Shampoo,"translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_49","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_50"}62Real BedstrictTRUELAt70%2015-10-2221009070333

Approach and Solution

This is a relatively straightforward problem. We simply need to drop the duplicates on the neighborhood column. As earlier, we can either apply the drop_duplicates() method on the entire dataset and then report the series. Or we can take the series and then drop the duplicates.

# Import your libraries
import pandas as pd
 
# Take the relevant series and apply the drop_duplicates() method
airbnb_search_details['neighbourhood'].drop_duplicates()

And we get our required solution.

Slicing Pandas Dataset

We can use a subset of the DataFrame instead of the full set. If you want only particular columns from the dataset, one can simply pass the list of relevant columns into the slicer.

covid_df[['Date','State', 'District', 'Confirmed']]
Slicing Pandas Dataset

Note you must use two sets of square brackets. If we use only a single square bracket, Pandas will assume that you want to create a Series. But a series will have only one field and therefore it will give an error.

You can also subset specific rows based on their values, like the WHERE condition in SQL or Filter option in Spreadsheets. Suppose we want only data from the states of Goa and Maharashtra. We can simply pass this as a condition and slice the DataFrame as one would slice a string or a list.

covid_df[(covid_df['State'] == 'Goa' )| (covid_df['State'] == 'Maharashtra')]
Slice the DataFrame in python pandas

Let us see what happens under the hood. The DataFrame slicer uses a Boolean Masking array. The condition inside the slicer returns a Boolean Series.

(covid_df['State'] == 'Goa' )| (covid_df['State'] == 'Maharashtra')
0         False
1         False
2         False
3         False
4         False
          ...  
344121    False
344122    False
344123    False
344124    False
344125    False
Name: State, Length: 344126, dtype: bool

When we pass this into the slicer, only the rows with True are retained. This is a very efficient and powerful way of filtering data.

Let us use this in a real-life Python Pandas interview question. This problem is from a Spotify Data Science Interview.

Top 10 Ranked Songs

Report the top 10 ranked songs by position. Output the track and the ranks in the descending order of ranks. If there are multiple songs with the same rank, sort them in alphabetical order of the track name.

Python Pandas Interview Questions for Top 10 Ranked Songs

Link to the question: https://platform.stratascratch.com/coding/9995-top-10-ranked-songs

The problem uses the spotify_worldwide_daily_song_ranking dataset that has the following fields.

idint64
positionint64
tracknameobject
artistobject
streamsint64
urlobject
datedatetime64[ns]
regionobject

This is what the dataset looks like.

Table: spotify_worldwide_daily_song_ranking
idpositiontracknameartiststreamsurldateregion
30365152Heart Won't ForgetMatoma28047https://open.spotify.com/track/2of2DM5LqTh7ohmmVXUKsH2017-02-04no
85559160Someone In The Crowd - From "La La Land" SoundtrackEmma Stone17134https://open.spotify.com/track/7xE4vKvjqUTtHyJ9zi0k1q2017-02-26fr
1046089175The GreatestSia10060https://open.spotify.com/track/7xHWNBFm6ObGEQPaUxHuKO2017-03-06cl
35082425UnforgettableFrench Montana46603https://open.spotify.com/track/3B54sVLJ402zGa6Xm4YGNe2017-10-01no
7768221Bad and Boujee (feat. Lil Uzi Vert)Migos1823391https://open.spotify.com/track/4Km5HrUvYTaSUfiSGPJeQR2017-01-27us

Approach and solution

To solve this problem, we first subset the songs that are ranked 10 or better.

# Import your libraries
import pandas as pd
 
# get the top10 songs
top10_songs = spotify_worldwide_daily_song_ranking[spotify_worldwide_daily_song_ranking['position'] <=10]

The output looks like this

Output of Python Pandas Interview Questions for Top 10 Ranked Songs

Now we need to sort this in descending order of position, ascending order of trackname and output the relevant fields.

# Sort and output relevant fields
top10_songs.sort_values(by = ['position', 'trackname'], ascending = [False, True])[['trackname','position']]

The output looks like this.

Output 2 of Python Pandas Interview Questions for Top 10 Ranked Songs

The problem is not over since we might have duplicate records as a song might be ranked No 1 in multiple locations. To remove duplicate records, we can simply call the drop_duplicates() method on the output.

# Sort and output relevant fields
top10_songs.sort_values(by = ['position', 'trackname'], ascending = [False, True])[['trackname','position']].drop_duplicates()

And we have the desired output now.

Aggregations

A very common test area in Python Pandas interview questions is aggregations or rollups. Business professionals want a top-level overview of the metrics before digging down deeper into sub-segments. Aggregations are very handy in these situations. These are similar to a Pivot Table in a spreadsheet or Group By methods in SQL. Pandas provides many ways to create these aggregations. In this article we look at the most basic one – the groupby method.

Let’s say we wanted to find the average number of confirmed cases reported in each district. We can do this by passing the State and District combination as the grouper variables and then calculate the average by calling the mean() method.

covid_df.groupby(['State', 'District']).mean()
mean() method python pandas questions

As you can see from the result, the State and District combination now becomes an index. In Pandas this is called a Multi-Index Data. You can easily get the index values back into the DataFrame by calling the reset_index() method. Or you can prevent the creation of this index by setting the as_index argument to False in the groupby method.

covid_df.groupby(['State', 'District'], as_index = False).mean()
reset_index() method python pandas questions

This gives us the grouper variable as columns in the DataFrame and we can use them for further analysis without having to resort to reset_index() again and again. Further, you would have noticed that Pandas calculates the mean of all numeric variables. We can retain the relevant columns by subsetting the final dataset. Or we can simply call the agg() method on a grouped DataFrame.

covid_df.groupby(['State', 'District'], as_index = False).agg
({'Confirmed' : 'mean'})
agg() method pandas questions

The agg() method is also advantageous in calculating multiple values aggregates at the same time. Suppose We want to report not only the average of the confirmed cases. but also, the maximum number of deaths, we can pass these as a dictionary to the agg() method.

covid_df.groupby(['State', 'District'], as_index = False).agg
({'Confirmed' : 'mean', 'Deceased' : 'max'})
calculating multiple values aggregates

Let us try to use this in one of the Python Pandas interview questions. This one is from an AirBnB Data Science Interview.

Cheapest Properties

Find the price of the cheapest property for every city.

Python Pandas Interview Questions Dataset for Cheapest Properties

Link to the question: https://platform.stratascratch.com/coding/9625-cheapest-properties

This problem uses the airbnb_search_details that we had seen in an earlier problem. Let us recap the fields present.

idint64
pricefloat64
property_typeobject
room_typeobject
amenitiesobject
accommodatesint64
bathroomsint64
bed_typeobject
cancellation_policyobject
cleaning_feebool
cityobject
host_identity_verifiedobject
host_response_rateobject
host_sincedatetime64[ns]
neighbourhoodobject
number_of_reviewsint64
review_scores_ratingfloat64
zipcodeint64
bedroomsint64
bedsint64

And this is what the data looks like.

Table: airbnb_search_details
idpriceproperty_typeroom_typeamenitiesaccommodatesbathroomsbed_typecancellation_policycleaning_feecityhost_identity_verifiedhost_response_ratehost_sinceneighbourhoodnumber_of_reviewsreview_scores_ratingzipcodebedroomsbeds
12513361555.68ApartmentEntire home/apt{TV,"Wireless Internet","Air conditioning","Smoke detector","Carbon monoxide detector",Essentials,"Lock on bedroom door",Hangers,Iron}21Real BedflexibleFALSENYCt89%2015-11-18East Harlem3871002901
7196412366.36CabinPrivate room{"Wireless Internet",Kitchen,Washer,Dryer,"Smoke detector","First aid kit","Fire extinguisher",Essentials,"Hair dryer","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_49","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_50"}23Real BedmoderateFALSELAf100%2016-09-10Valley Glen14919160611
16333776482.83HousePrivate room{TV,"Cable TV",Internet,"Wireless Internet",Kitchen,"Free parking on premises","Pets live on this property",Dog(s),"Indoor fireplace","Buzzer/wireless intercom",Heating,Washer,Dryer,"Smoke detector","Carbon monoxide detector","First aid kit","Safety card","Fire extinguisher",Essentials,Shampoo,"24-hour check-in",Hangers,"Hair dryer",Iron,"Laptop friendly workspace","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_49","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_50","Self Check-In",Lockbox}21Real BedstrictTRUESFt100%2013-12-26Richmond District117969411811
1786412448.86ApartmentPrivate room{"Wireless Internet","Air conditioning",Kitchen,Heating,"Suitable for events","Smoke detector","Carbon monoxide detector","First aid kit","Fire extinguisher",Essentials,Shampoo,"Lock on bedroom door",Hangers,"translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_49","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_50"}21Real BedstrictTRUENYCt93%2010-05-11Williamsburg8861121111
14575777506.89VillaPrivate room{TV,Internet,"Wireless Internet","Air conditioning",Kitchen,"Free parking on premises",Essentials,Shampoo,"translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_49","translation missing: en.hosting_amenity_50"}62Real BedstrictTRUELAt70%2015-10-2221009070333

Approach and Solution

This problem can be solved easily with the groupby method. We simply need to roll-up at city level and find the minimum of the prices column.

# Import your libraries
import pandas as pd
 
# Calculate the mininum prices at city level
airbnb_search_details.groupby(by = ['city'], as_index = False).agg({'price': 'min'})

Merging

Till now we have used only a single dataset. However real life dataset are optimized by splitting them into different tables. Pandas supports multiple ways of combining multiple datasets. We can stack one DataFrame on top of another or alongside other using the append() and concat() methods. Or we can use an SQL style merge using the merge() merge method. Let us see how to use the merge method using a SalesForce Python Pandas interview question.

Average Salaries

Report the department, first name and salary of each employee along with the average salary of the corresponding department.

Python Pandas Interview Questions for Average Salaries

Link to the question: https://platform.stratascratch.com/coding/9917-average-salaries

This problem uses the employee dataset which has the following fields.

idint64
first_nameobject
last_nameobject
ageint64
sexobject
employee_titleobject
departmentobject
salaryint64
targetint64
bonusint64
emailobject
cityobject
addressobject
manager_idint64

The dataset looks like this.

Table: employee
idfirst_namelast_nameagesexemployee_titledepartmentsalarytargetbonusemailcityaddressmanager_id
5MaxGeorge26MSalesSales1300200150Max@company.comCalifornia2638 Richards Avenue1
13KattyBond56FManagerManagement1500000300Katty@company.comArizona1
11RicherdGear57MManagerManagement2500000300Richerd@company.comAlabama1
10JenniferDion34FSalesSales1000200150Jennifer@company.comAlabama13
19GeorgeJoe50MManagerManagement1000000300George@company.comFlorida1003 Wyatt Street1

Approach and Solution

To solve this Python Pandas interview question we need to find the average salary of each department and add that field to the DataFrame. We start off by calculating the average salaries using the groupby method. We also rename the salary field so that the names do not conflict during merge. Note this will not result in an error, but the names will be suffixed with identifiers. We can change those, but to make life easier, we just rename one of the variables.

# Import your libraries
import pandas as pd
 
# Calculate Average Salary for each department
avg_sal = employee.groupby(by = ['department'], as_index = False).agg({'salary' : 'mean'}).rename(columns = {'salary' : 'average_salary'})

The aggregated dataset looks like this.

Output of Python Pandas Interview Questions for Average Salaries

We now proceed to merge this back to the original DataFrame on the department field. While merging we pass only the relevant columns from the original DataFrame.

# Merge with the relevant fields from the original DataFrame
pd.merge(employee[['department', 'first_name', 'salary']], avg_sal, 
on = 'department', how = 'inner')

We specify inner join. If there are no missing departments, then this will give the same result as a left join or a right join or an outer join.

Calculated Fields

Till now we have used fields that were already present in the dataset. We can also create calculated fields very easily. Let us try one with our Covid dataset. Suppose we want to calculate the recovery rate (Number of Recovered Cases / Number of Confirmed Cases), then we can simply do it like this.

covid_df['Recovery Rate'] = covid_df['Recovered'] / covid_df['Confirmed'] 
covid_df
Pandas Calculated Fields

Let's use this in one of the Python Pandas interview questions. This Python Pandas interview question is from an Uber Data Science Interview.

Advertising Channel Effectiveness

Calculate the averages effectiveness for each advertising channel across the years 2017 and 2018. Report the channel and effectiveness sorted in the increasing order of effectiveness.
Advertising effectiveness is defined as the ratio of total money spent to total customers acquired.

Python Pandas Interview Questions for Advertising Channel Effectiveness

Link to the question: https://platform.stratascratch.com/coding/10012-advertising-channel-effectiveness

This problem uses the uber_advertising dataset that has the following fields.

yearint64
advertising_channelobject
money_spentint64
customers_acquiredint64

The data is present like thus.

Table: uber_advertising
yearadvertising_channelmoney_spentcustomers_acquired
2019celebrities100000001800
2019billboards10000002000
2019busstops1500400
2019buses700002500
2019tv3000005000

Approach and Solution

To solve this Python Pandas interview question, we first aggregate the money_spent and customers_acquired columns across the advertising_channel. We need to ensure that we keep only the relevant years since the problem asks us to calculate these values across 2017 and 2018 only.

# Import your libraries
import pandas as pd
 
# Summarize the spends and customer acquired by channel
summ_df = uber_advertising[uber_advertising['year'].isin([2017, 2018])].groupby(
    by = ['advertising_channel'], as_index = False
    ).agg(
        {
            'money_spent' : 'sum', 'customers_acquired':'sum'
        }
        )

The output looks thus.

Output of Python Pandas Interview Questions for Advertising Channel Effectiveness

We can now calculate the effectiveness using the given formula, subset the relevant fields and sort as per the required specifications.

# Calculate effectiveness        
summ_df['effct'] = summ_df['money_spent'] / summ_df['customers_acquired']
# Sort and output relevant fields
summ_df[['advertising_channel', 'effct']].sort_values(by = ['effct'])

Conclusion

In this article we looked at the basics of data manipulation with Pandas and the types of Python Pandas interview questions you can expect in any data science interview. You can find the Covid-19 dataset and the associated Python Notebook here. In the next part of this series, we will extend these concepts and look at slightly complex problems like -

  • Datetime Manipulation
  • Text Manipulation
  • Applying Functions
  • Advanced Aggregation
  • Offsetting Data
  • Statistics using Pandas

If you have worked with a Spreadsheet program or SQL tables, migrating to Pandas is very easy. In fact, you can use Pandas, a library to learn Python. On the StrataScratch platform, you will find over 700 coding problems and non-technical interview problems from Data Science Interviews. Check out our recent post on Top 30 Python Interview Questions and Answers. These problems are created from Data Science interviews at top companies like Netflix, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, et al. You can join a group of 20,000+ like minded data science aspirants to get a collaborative learning experience. Sign up for StrataScratch today and give yourself the best chance to crack interviews for the most in-demand jobs at big tech firms and start-ups across the world.


Python Pandas Interview Questions for Data Science


Become a data expert. Subscribe to our newsletter.